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Home Team RPIs Conference RPIs n-Rating All Selection Data Archive Schedules Notes on My Calculations Women's RPI Links

NCAA Women's Basketball n-Rating

Games through 30 December 2001


Mean home advantage: 7.0555  SD: 19.5121


N1 = raw expected winning margin
N2 = expected winning margin, adjusted once for opponents' strength


rank team                   n-Rating    N2        N1     W   L conference 


1.   Tennessee              33.727    25.591    18.636   10  0  SEC
2.   Connecticut            31.574    25.057    18.950   13  0  BigEast
3.   Duke                   26.677    20.331    15.977   10  3  ACC
4.   Vanderbilt             24.943    17.568    13.510   11  2  SEC
5.   LouisianaTech          22.847    15.949    10.394    7  3  WAC
6.   TexasTech              22.504    16.120     9.994    8  2  BigTwelve
7.   Stanford               22.504    15.368    11.242   12  1  PacTen
8.   VirginiaTech           22.294    17.025    15.225    8  2  BigEast
9.   Purdue                 22.237    15.444    11.157   10  2  BigTen
10.  Oklahoma               21.970    16.635    11.871   10  1  BigTwelve
11.  IowaState              21.970    17.302    15.082   12  0  BigTwelve
12.  Georgia                20.293    16.911    16.625   10  0  SEC
13.  Cincinnati             20.255    16.883    15.511   11  0  CUSA
14.  Michigan               20.103    13.529    10.509   10  3  BigTen
15.  Colorado               19.836    15.444    11.290   10  3  BigTwelve
16.  Bradley                19.312    17.654    19.817    9  1  MVC
17.  UNLV                   18.474    14.358    14.663   10  1  MWC
18.  Mississippi            18.416    15.168    13.091    8  4  SEC
19.  FloridaState           18.388    14.577    13.367   10  3  ACC
20.  SouthCarolina          18.293    14.396    10.861   12  1  SEC
21.  LSU                    18.140    13.462    10.452    7  4  SEC
22.  Wisconsin              18.083    11.347     7.846   11  1  BigTen
23.  Auburn                 18.026    15.244    14.348   12  1  SEC
24.  Syracuse               17.911    13.129     8.875    7  3  BigEast
25.  OldDominion            17.816    12.414     6.831    5  4  Colonial
26.  Illinois               17.769    12.595    11.357    9  3  BigTen
27.  NorthCarolina          17.502    12.957    10.194   10  2  ACC
28.  Florida                17.378    12.757    10.290   10  3  SEC
29.  SantaClara             17.235    12.862     9.889   10  2  WCC
30.  KansasState            17.035    13.500    12.024   12  1  BigTwelve
31.  Baylor                 16.673    13.948    15.758   12  0  BigTwelve
32.  Iowa                   15.911    10.737     7.412    8  4  BigTen
33.  BostonCollege          15.758    11.928    10.004    9  2  BigEast
34.  USC                    15.682     9.080     6.174    7  6  PacTen
35.  ColoradoState          15.425    10.690     9.727   10  2  MWC
36.  UCSantaBarbara         15.177     8.675     3.680    4  5  BigWest
37.  MississippiState       14.977    11.223     8.556    9  3  SEC
38.  Alabama                14.968    12.452    11.042   10  3  SEC
39.  Nebraska               14.863    12.290    10.042   10  3  BigTwelve
40.  Utah                   14.463     8.913     8.779    6  5  MWC
41.  Washington             14.329     8.584     6.955    7  5  PacTen
42.  TCU                    14.291    10.633     7.107    8  3  CUSA
43.  Arkansas               14.148    10.899     9.499    8  3  SEC
44.  Drake                  14.148     9.018     4.161    7  3  MVC
45.  NotreDame              13.834     8.098     4.902    5  5  BigEast
46.  Belmont                13.700    11.118    13.605    7  1  AtlSun
47.  Clemson                13.615     9.504     6.555    9  3  ACC
48.  Southern               13.596    13.224    11.509    6  3  SWAC
49.  Minnesota              13.519     9.265     8.303   10  2  BigTen
50.  BYU                    13.329     9.246    10.861    9  3  MWC
51.  EasternKentucky        13.081     9.399     7.808    7  3  OVC
52.  Indiana                12.986     7.808     5.659    8  5  BigTen
53.  Tulane                 12.767     8.122     6.579   10  2  CUSA
54.  NorthCarolinaState     12.595     6.683     3.823    7  5  ACC
55.  HolyCross              12.509     8.189     5.593    8  3  Patriot
56.  Rutgers                12.367     7.074     3.856    4  6  BigEast
57.  Chattanooga            11.947     7.941     8.884    6  4  Southern
58.  St.Peters              11.947     7.684     8.479    9  2  MAAC
59.  Missouri               11.900     8.846     6.907    9  2  BigTwelve
60.  Vermont                11.871     7.751     3.756    5  5  AmEast
61.  Texas                  11.862     8.918     4.156    8  2  BigTwelve
62.  Montana                11.738     8.560     7.017    6  3  BigSky
63.  FloridaInternational   11.690     7.069     4.409   10  4  SunBelt
64.  PennState              11.671     7.436     5.216    8  5  BigTen
65.  NewMexico              11.433     7.584     6.683   10  3  MWC
66.  Rice                   11.309     6.655     4.328    6  4  WAC
67.  St.Josephs             11.157     8.441     6.626    9  2  ATen
68.  SouthAlabama           11.061    10.432    12.643   10  3  SunBelt
69.  Oregon                 10.995     6.164     3.656    8  5  PacTen
70.  WisconsinGreenBay      10.671     8.013     4.318    6  5  Horizon
71.  MiddleTennessee        10.356     7.550     5.030    7  5  SunBelt
72.  TennesseeTech          10.318     6.312     3.597    7  4  OVC
73.  Wofford                10.118     8.322     7.374    6  4  Southern
74.  Duquesne               10.032     6.526     7.046    5  6  ATen
75.  DePaul                 10.023     5.054     1.727    7  5  CUSA
76.  Louisville              9.804     5.959     4.202    8  4  CUSA
77.  GeorgiaTech             9.737     6.169     2.687    6  5  ACC
78.  WestVirginia            9.727     8.384     8.951    7  4  BigEast
79.  Denver                  9.523     6.907     5.254    6  8  SunBelt
80.  NorthTexas              9.518     4.983     2.715    6  5  SunBelt
81.  Evansville              9.423     3.911     1.236    5  6  MVC
82.  NorthernIowa            9.399     5.855     2.975    6  6  MVC
83.  OregonState             9.394     4.211     0.441    6  7  PacTen
84.  Temple                  9.351     4.740     0.193    4  6  ATen
85.  St.Marys                9.270     4.140     2.387    5  6  WCC
86.  Creighton               9.261     7.912     7.446    6  4  MVC
87.  ArizonaState            9.170     5.626     4.935   11  3  PacTen
88.  Virginia                9.094     3.928     1.148    7  5  ACC
89.  BallState               9.094     5.150     6.360    6  3  MAC
90.  Houston                 9.032     7.041     9.294    9  3  CUSA
91.  UNCWilmington           8.899     6.669     8.241    7  3  Colonial
92.  Pacific                 8.884     6.026     2.832    5  5  BigWest
93.  NewHampshire            8.827     6.474     6.474    5  5  AmEast
94.  Maryland                8.827     5.040     3.820    8  5  ACC
95.  WesternKentucky         8.713     3.194    -2.095    7  5  SunBelt
96.  SWMissouriState         8.579     5.354     1.482    4  5  MVC
97.  GeorgiaState            8.451     7.255     3.092    4  4  AtlSun
98.  Providence              8.446     5.712     3.039    6  6  BigEast
99.  MontanaState            8.432     5.197     4.935    5  5  BigSky
100. Villanova               8.417     6.112     6.255    6  4  BigEast
101. Massachusetts           8.198     4.783     2.718    2  9  ATen
102. MichiganState           7.979     3.282     4.078    9  2  BigTen
103. Kentucky                7.927     3.632     3.966    7  5  SEC
104. LongBeachState          7.827     5.597     6.669    4  6  BigWest
105. GeorgeWashington        7.817     3.106     0.648    5  6  ATen
106. SEMissouriState         7.774     6.383     6.950    5  3  OVC
107. Pepperdine              7.760     3.992     1.898    7  4  WCC
108. Hawaii                  7.527     4.847     3.644    8  2  WAC
109. SetonHall               7.460     3.425     3.616    7  4  BigEast
110. WisconsinMilwaukee      7.455     2.175    -0.092    5  5  Horizon
111. SanDiego                7.388     4.745     6.674    8  4  WCC
112. Portland                7.103     4.063     4.935    6  5  WCC
113. MiamiFla.               6.984     4.464     4.997    8  3  BigEast
114. Siena                   6.874     3.720     4.654    7  3  MAAC
115. WesternIllinois         6.803     5.026     6.150    5  5  MidCon
116. Delaware                6.788     5.540     7.489    7  2  Colonial
117. Georgetown              6.769     4.888     5.007    8  3  BigEast
118. Valparaiso              6.712     3.346     1.272    6  4  MidCon
119. RhodeIsland             6.698     4.154     6.798    6  4  ATen
120. NorthernArizona         6.664     4.433     3.682    7  5  BigSky
121. SouthFlorida            6.550     4.433     6.350    9  3  CUSA
122. Toledo                  6.479     2.863     1.141    4  6  MAC
123. OhioState               6.450     2.444     1.169    6  7  BigTen
124. LoyolaMarymount         6.298     3.456     2.706    8  3  WCC
125. Gonzaga                 6.274     3.647     7.322    3  5  WCC
126. UCIrvine                6.231     4.183     3.082    3  8  BigWest
127. BostonUniversity        6.183     5.593     6.374    7  3  AmEast
128. Maine                   6.159     3.394     0.962    7  4  AmEast
129. Manhattan               6.150     5.188     3.492    6  4  MAAC
130. Harvard                 6.121     4.116     3.632    7  4  Ivy
131. LouisianaLafayette      6.093     3.497     1.867    4  8  SunBelt
132. Memphis                 6.083     2.094    -0.437    6  6  CUSA
133. Richmond                5.859     2.792    -1.126    6  7  ATen
134. MiamiOhio               5.855     1.613     1.470    6  5  MAC
135. OklahomaState           5.855     3.592     3.897    7  5  BigTwelve
136. Xavier                  5.821     2.220    -1.197    4  7  ATen
137. NorthwesternState       5.640     4.742     6.226    5  3  Southland
138. NorfolkState            5.583     4.788    13.805    5  1  MEAC
139. TexasA&MCorpusChristi   5.550     4.171     2.225    6  8  Independent
140. UNCGreensboro           5.497     2.477     0.357    6  4  Southern
141. Drexel                  5.388     3.873     6.407    7  2  Colonial
142. CalPoly                 5.250     3.082     1.608    2  6  BigWest
143. Charlotte               5.240     3.070     3.344    7  5  CUSA
144. Marquette               5.173    -0.709    -3.936    5  6  CUSA
145. SanFrancisco            4.868     0.762    -1.409    6  5  WCC
146. SanJoseState            4.661     2.670     4.218    7  4  WAC
147. Dartmouth               4.471     1.820     1.472    4  6  Ivy
148. Pittsburgh              4.464     1.046    -1.430    5  7  BigEast
149. Dayton                  4.442     0.691    -3.250    3  8  ATen
150. Mercer                  4.321     2.765     6.903    4  5  AtlSun
151. Tulsa                   4.266     2.065     2.570    6  5  WAC
152. KentState               4.028     1.179    -2.190    4  7  MAC
153. Liberty                 4.006    -0.025    -1.040    4  6  BigSouth
154. William&Mary            3.887     0.617     4.685    4  3  Colonial
155. GeorgeMason             3.804     1.289    -1.966    6  5  Colonial
156. StephenF.Austin         3.787     0.498     1.462    6  4  Southland
157. EasternMichigan         3.751     1.443     1.927    6  4  MAC
158. ArkansasState           3.735     0.002    -2.033    5  7  SunBelt
159. Furman                  3.649     0.869    -1.178    6  5  Southern
160. Monmouth                3.608     2.341     0.712    5  5  Northeast
161. Arizona                 3.511    -1.430    -4.034    5  6  PacTen
162. Binghamton              3.485     3.077     4.907    9  2  AmEast
163. FresnoState             3.423     0.231     0.581    6  6  WAC
164. SMU                     3.406     0.033    -4.139    5  7  WAC
165. MoreheadState           3.377     2.013     5.011    6  1  OVC
166. JamesMadison            3.327     0.060    -1.957    6  3  Colonial
167. Wyoming                 3.125    -0.044     0.862    5  5  MWC
168. WeberState              3.054     1.208     0.695    7  5  BigSky
169. AlabamaState            3.034     2.680     5.107    5  4  SWAC
170. St.Bonaventure          3.027     0.264    -0.282    6  5  ATen
171. UAB                     2.930     0.629     1.053    8  5  CUSA
172. Princeton               2.832     2.372     4.614    6  5  Ivy
173. IdahoState              2.739     2.301     2.625    5  4  BigSky
174. CollegeofCharleston     2.508     1.808     2.003    4  4  Southern
175. AustinPeay              2.418     1.443     0.171    6  4  OVC
176. Marist                  2.415     0.805    -1.452    4  6  MAAC
177. Oakland                 2.253    -0.423    -4.389    5  7  MidCon
178. Fordham                 2.134     0.300    -0.809    2  8  ATen
179. PortlandState           2.132    -1.009    -0.280    5  6  BigSky
180. CentralMichigan         2.115    -0.075     1.929    6  3  MAC
181. Northwestern            1.760    -1.302    -4.953    4  9  BigTen
182. Ohio                    1.653    -0.032     4.183    5  6  MAC
183. Navy                    1.553     1.824     5.735    8  3  Patriot
184. SaintLouis              1.429    -0.661     0.603    7  5  CUSA
185. TexasA&M                1.424     0.541     4.809    8  4  BigTwelve
186. Hofstra                 1.398     0.410     0.524    3  7  Colonial
187. Lipscomb                1.398    -0.356    -0.054    3 10  Independent
188. MurrayState             1.331    -2.057    -0.375    3  5  OVC
189. Davidson                1.265    -0.625    -2.083    4  6  Southern
190. BethuneCookman          1.260     2.325     4.649    3  4  MEAC
191. Hartford                1.200    -0.511     0.981    4  6  AmEast
192. Detroit                 1.150    -1.657    -3.129    4  6  Horizon
193. Pennsylvania            1.127    -1.635    -2.236    3  7  Ivy
194. Cornell                 1.110     0.893     3.099    5  5  Ivy
195. EastCarolina            1.053    -1.202    -0.432    2 10  CUSA
196. TennesseeMartin         1.053    -1.214    -4.255    1  9  OVC
197. WesternMichigan         1.012    -2.102    -1.464    3  8  MAC
198. SanDiegoState           0.831    -0.809     2.684    7  4  MWC
199. WesternCarolina         0.788    -1.121     1.798    7  3  Southern
200. NorthernIllinois        0.662    -2.526    -2.176    5  5  MAC
201. EastTennesseeState      0.615    -1.740    -0.390    7  4  Southern
202. Idaho                   0.495    -0.799    -0.575    6  5  BigWest
203. NichollsState           0.360    -0.399     0.012    4  4  Southland
204. Fairfield               0.336    -2.066    -5.434    3  7  MAAC
205. MarylandBaltimoreCo     0.288    -0.147     0.200    4  6  Northeast
206. American                0.260    -1.345    -0.132    5  6  Patriot
207. Elon                    0.191    -1.843    -0.949    2  7  BigSouth
208. IllinoisChicago         0.160    -0.714     0.079    8  4  Horizon
209. California              0.155    -3.238    -4.005    4  7  PacTen
210. UCLA                    0.131    -3.755    -8.107    4  8  PacTen
211. WakeForest              0.112    -2.109    -1.676    6  6  ACC
212. Bucknell                0.017    -1.023    -0.185    5  6  Patriot
213. JacksonState           -0.247    -0.463     2.139    3  6  SWAC
214. Colgate                -0.247    -0.137     0.064    5  7  Patriot
215. AppalachianState       -0.278    -0.959     1.262    4  7  Southern
216. StonyBrook             -0.352    -2.662    -1.638    5  4  AmEast
217. LoyolaIll.             -0.454    -2.529     0.695    6  5  Horizon
218. SouthernUtah           -0.459    -1.788    -1.385    2  8  MidCon
219. Columbia               -0.497    -0.082     1.553    4  5  Ivy
220. WichitaState           -0.549    -3.605    -4.020    5  5  MVC
221. GeorgiaSouthern        -0.561    -2.343    -3.858    3  6  Southern
222. CoastalCarolina        -0.573    -2.633    -3.331    2  6  BigSouth
223. Yale                   -0.628    -0.411     1.205    6  4  Ivy
224. CharlestonSouthern     -0.668    -3.119    -5.873    2  4  BigSouth
225. St.FrancisPa.          -0.697    -3.312    -1.612    3  6  Northeast
226. IndianaState           -0.818    -4.174    -0.592    5  5  MVC
227. ChicagoState           -0.902    -2.231    -3.727    4  6  MidCon
228. SWTexasState           -1.107    -3.307    -0.678    4  6  Southland
229. SacredHeart            -1.147    -1.778    -1.514    4  5  Northeast
230. VirginiaCommonwealth   -1.269    -3.960    -5.158    3  8  Colonial
231. Wagner                 -1.380    -2.283    -4.639    2  8  Northeast
232. Marshall               -1.440    -1.885     0.095    3  6  MAC
233. Hampton                -1.485    -3.874    -2.707    5  7  MEAC
234. ArkansasLittleRock     -1.581    -2.276    -4.041    4  7  SunBelt
235. LaSalle                -1.590    -2.414    -3.048    4  7  ATen
236. LoyolaMd.              -1.642    -2.509    -0.723    7  4  MAAC
237. Canisius               -1.662    -3.005    -2.205    5  5  MAAC
238. Kansas                 -1.712    -3.255    -3.322    4  8  BigTwelve
239. Stetson                -1.821    -2.152    -1.940    1  7  AtlSun
240. Rider                  -1.859    -2.471    -2.960    1  9  MAAC
241. HighPoint              -1.931    -4.627    -8.007    3  7  BigSouth
242. IUPUI                  -2.074    -3.036    -5.177    3  8  MidCon
243. NewMexicoState         -2.178    -4.129    -3.372    5  7  SunBelt
244. YoungstownState        -2.312    -4.920    -1.709    3  7  Horizon
245. Mt.St.Marys            -2.462    -3.557    -0.459    4  6  Northeast
246. Quinnipiac             -2.467    -3.243    -1.847    5  5  Northeast
247. Nevada                 -2.743    -6.549    -8.950    4  7  WAC
248. AlcornState            -3.026    -2.159     1.782    3  3  SWAC
249. WashingtonState        -3.029    -6.068   -10.355    2 11  PacTen
250. OralRoberts            -3.036    -4.944    -6.606    4  7  MidCon
251. Campbell               -3.112    -2.645    -7.106    2  6  AtlSun
252. SouthernIllinois       -3.119    -5.144    -2.781    4  6  MVC
253. UCRiverside            -3.124    -5.034    -2.462    2  6  BigWest
254. BowlingGreen           -3.157    -4.555    -3.831    2  8  MAC
255. Buffalo                -3.162    -4.491    -4.722    5  6  MAC
256. Niagara                -3.174    -4.572    -3.238    2  9  MAAC
257. TexasArlington         -3.300    -3.634    -3.527    4  6  Southland
258. CentralFlorida         -3.448    -5.492    -4.803    6  5  AtlSun
259. FairleighDickinson     -3.481    -4.224    -0.799    5  4  Northeast
260. Howard                 -3.777    -5.201    -4.322    3  8  MEAC
261. Grambling              -3.898    -4.367    -4.236    4  5  SWAC
262. BoiseState             -4.158    -5.391    -7.750    4  8  WAC
263. ClevelandState         -4.272    -6.916    -4.174    5  5  Horizon
264. IllinoisState          -4.282    -6.863    -9.564    2  8  MVC
265. LongIsland             -4.520    -5.425    -4.577    4  6  Northeast
266. CalStateNorthridge     -4.901    -9.431   -11.565    0  9  BigWest
267. UMKC                   -4.925    -5.334    -4.972    3  9  MidCon
268. SouthCarolinaState     -5.187    -5.492    -2.831    3  7  MEAC
269. LouisianaMonroe        -5.268    -5.558    -3.172    3  6  Southland
270. Butler                 -5.415    -8.078   -10.241    1 11  Horizon
271. MarylandEasternShore   -5.449    -4.594    -3.612    4  6  MEAC
272. Lehigh                 -5.682    -5.325    -6.578    4  7  Patriot
273. Army                   -5.720    -6.035    -4.565    2  7  Patriot
274. Lafayette              -5.796    -5.458    -6.516    2  8  Patriot
275. TroyState              -5.844    -6.964    -8.169    3  6  AtlSun
276. Albany                 -6.106    -5.601    -4.463    3  7  AmEast
277. TexasSanAntonio        -6.244    -8.269    -7.964    3  7  Southland
278. Northeastern           -6.297    -7.740    -9.017    1  9  AmEast
279. SouthernMississippi    -6.544    -7.054    -6.197    6  6  CUSA
280. JacksonvilleState      -7.097    -8.097   -10.250    1  8  AtlSun
281. AirForce               -7.197    -8.883    -9.355    2  8  MWC
282. Radford                -7.554    -7.831    -8.855    2  8  BigSouth
283. BirminghamSouthern     -7.635    -8.164    -3.255    4  5  BigSouth
284. St.Johns               -7.678    -8.254    -7.711    3  9  BigEast
285. NewOrleans             -7.831    -7.669    -6.244    3  9  SunBelt
286. FloridaAtlantic        -7.911   -10.222   -10.546    3  6  AtlSun
287. DelawareState          -7.997    -7.864    -7.192    2  7  MEAC
288. FloridaA&M             -8.054    -6.640    -5.453    3  6  MEAC
289. EasternWashington      -8.274    -9.974    -9.927    3  8  BigSky
290. Brown                  -8.274    -9.031    -8.998    3  7  Ivy
291. Iona                   -8.588    -9.564   -10.479    1  8  MAAC
292. WrightState            -9.355    -8.731   -10.755    2  8  Horizon
293. AlabamaA&M             -9.479    -8.921    -8.097    1  6  SWAC
294. CoppinState            -9.898    -9.936   -11.279    3  9  MEAC
295. CalStateFullerton     -10.289   -12.099   -11.708    2  8  BigWest
296. TexasSouthern         -10.794    -9.974    -6.821    3  6  SWAC
297. TennesseeState        -11.051   -12.318   -15.243    1  7  OVC
298. Centenary             -11.194   -10.031    -9.850    1 11  Independent
299. Winthrop              -11.308   -11.203   -14.281    1  7  BigSouth
300. Akron                 -12.251   -12.813   -12.689    1 10  MAC
301. SELouisiana           -12.280   -12.480   -10.975    0  9  Southland
302. EasternIllinois       -12.404   -13.213   -16.272    0 10  OVC
303. ArkansasPineBluff     -12.842   -12.499   -10.517    2  5  SWAC
304. Jacksonville          -12.937   -13.080   -15.834    0  8  AtlSun
305. Towson                -13.004   -12.747   -15.138    1 10  Colonial
306. St.FrancisN.Y.        -13.166   -12.718   -10.908    2  8  Northeast
307. TexasElPaso           -14.671   -15.205   -13.995    2  7  WAC
308. Lamar                 -14.881   -14.671   -10.422    4  6  Southland
309. TexasPanAmerican      -15.186   -16.138   -13.833    1 11  Independent
310. MorganState           -15.433   -16.157   -17.015    0 11  MEAC
311. SamHoustonState       -15.462   -15.109   -15.586    0 11  Southland
312. Samford               -15.776   -15.795   -13.776    1  8  AtlSun
313. MississippiValley     -16.653   -15.662    -9.226    1  5  SWAC
314. UNCAsheville          -17.987   -18.863   -21.417    0  9  BigSouth
315. RobertMorris          -19.244   -19.463   -21.321    0  8  Northeast
316. McNeeseState          -19.530   -20.483   -19.397    1  8  Southland
317. CentralConnecticut    -20.864   -21.074   -20.864    0 10  Northeast
318. CalStateSacramento    -22.865   -23.170   -25.399    0 10  BigSky
319. MorrisBrown           -23.856   -20.712   -20.445    1  9  Independent
320. NorthCarolinaA&T      -25.590   -24.103   -21.150    0  6  MEAC
321. PrairieViewA&M        -26.199   -25.037   -28.524    0  6  SWAC

Tue Jan 01 09:00:50 PST 2002

Calculations by Curtis Schmelling, made possible by MacPerl and Java!

(C) Copyright 1997-2001, Curtis Schmelling

You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All Rights Reserved