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Home Team RPIs Conference RPIs n-Rating All Selection Data Archive Schedules Notes on My Calculations Women's RPI Links

NCAA Women's Basketball n-Rating

Games through 24 February 2002


Mean home advantage: 5.2680  SD: 17.8487


N1 = raw expected winning margin
N2 = expected winning margin, adjusted once for opponents' strength


rank team                   n-Rating    N2        N1     W   L conference 


1.   Connecticut            32.403    28.167    22.485   29  0  BigEast
2.   Tennessee              21.317    16.559    10.232   24  3  SEC
3.   OldDominion            21.282    18.302    15.469   21  5  Colonial
4.   LouisianaTech          20.603    18.128    15.705   20  4  WAC
5.   Duke                   19.958    17.518    14.406   24  3  ACC
6.   Oklahoma               19.539    15.844    11.565   23  3  BigTwelve
7.   Vanderbilt             18.825    14.798    10.406   24  6  SEC
8.   Colorado               17.457    13.596    10.144   20  8  BigTwelve
9.   Stanford               17.274    14.668    13.038   28  1  PacTen
10.  Purdue                 16.812    13.404     9.386   22  4  BigTen
11.  Cincinnati             16.080    13.430    12.454   23  4  CUSA
12.  TexasTech              15.853    12.245     8.388   17  9  BigTwelve
13.  UCSantaBarbara         15.748    13.613    11.260   20  5  BigWest
14.  IowaState              14.920    11.565     9.343   21  6  BigTwelve
15.  NotreDame              14.685    11.042     7.935   19  7  BigEast
16.  Baylor                 14.110    11.190     9.090   23  4  BigTwelve
17.  Southern               14.040    13.814    12.855   19  4  SWAC
18.  Texas                  13.814    10.563     6.724   18  8  BigTwelve
19.  BostonCollege          13.709    10.249     8.519   21  5  BigEast
20.  LSU                    13.692     9.569     5.443   15 10  SEC
21.  TCU                    13.622    10.737     8.641   22  5  CUSA
22.  UNLV                   13.578    11.888    10.310   21  4  MWC
23.  SouthCarolina          13.343     9.866     7.181   22  5  SEC
24.  Georgia                12.820     9.456     6.319   18  9  SEC
25.  KansasState            12.750    10.153     6.898   22  6  BigTwelve
26.  VirginiaTech           12.471     9.238     5.661   16  9  BigEast
27.  FloridaInternational   12.367     9.726     7.234   23  5  SunBelt
28.  MississippiState       12.245     8.375     5.848   18 10  SEC
29.  HolyCross              12.236    10.659     9.883   21  6  Patriot
30.  Arkansas               12.114     8.689     5.804   17 10  SEC
31.  ColoradoState          12.053     9.683     7.539   21  5  MWC
32.  PennState              11.757     8.467     5.726   19 10  BigTen
33.  NorthCarolina          11.722     9.447     6.719   22  7  ACC
34.  WisconsinGreenBay      11.164     9.935    10.066   21  6  Horizon
35.  Creighton              11.086     9.412     9.029   19  6  MVC
36.  Illinois               11.025     7.713     5.543   14 12  BigTen
37.  Florida                11.016     7.451     3.754   18  9  SEC
38.  Wisconsin              10.903     7.621     4.541   17 10  BigTen
39.  Syracuse               10.807     7.390     4.528   15 11  BigEast
40.  Minnesota              10.650     7.983     5.591   21  6  BigTen
41.  NewMexico              10.641     8.301     5.752   20  6  MWC
42.  NorthTexas             10.528     8.035     5.835   18  7  SunBelt
43.  Drake                  10.493     8.271     6.462   19  6  MVC
44.  Iowa                   10.476     7.691     4.737   17  9  BigTen
45.  Chattanooga            10.458     9.247     9.439   20  7  Southern
46.  Alabama                10.266     6.523     3.926   17 10  SEC
47.  EasternKentucky        10.188     9.020     8.175   20  6  OVC
48.  UNCGreensboro           9.874     8.776     7.329   19  8  Southern
49.  St.Peters               9.857     8.811     7.974   22  5  MAAC
50.  Utah                    9.726     7.913     6.057   12 11  MWC
51.  Washington              9.700     7.512     6.423   17 10  PacTen
52.  SantaClara              9.587     8.070     5.769   19  8  WCC
53.  Auburn                  9.421     6.122     3.233   15 12  SEC
54.  Villanova               9.325     6.327     4.854   17  9  BigEast
55.  USC                     9.221     6.863     5.491   15 12  PacTen
56.  BallState               9.221     7.543     7.574   18  6  MAC
57.  OregonState             9.203     6.676     4.373   15 13  PacTen
58.  WisconsinMilwaukee      9.195     7.757     7.918   20  7  Horizon
59.  Vermont                 9.046     7.364     6.153   18  7  AmEast
60.  Valparaiso              9.038     7.922     6.763   19  5  MidCon
61.  Montana                 9.029     7.643     8.924   16  8  BigSky
62.  Temple                  9.029     6.197     4.911   17 10  ATen
63.  St.Josephs              8.924     7.099     6.641   21  6  ATen
64.  Michigan                8.820     5.913     3.582   16 11  BigTen
65.  BYU                     8.728     6.811     5.992   17  8  MWC
66.  Clemson                 8.728     6.205     3.575   16 10  ACC
67.  Denver                  8.685     6.898     5.852   15 12  SunBelt
68.  NorthernArizona         8.667     7.478     6.972   15 10  BigSky
69.  Delaware                8.637     7.983     7.704   21  5  Colonial
70.  SouthAlabama            8.480     7.290     6.985   17 10  SunBelt
71.  Mississippi             8.384     5.294     2.042   11 16  SEC
72.  Siena                   8.319     7.356     7.133   21  5  MAAC
73.  StephenF.Austin         8.179     7.896     8.894   20  5  Southland
74.  WesternKentucky         8.153     5.543     2.593   15 12  SunBelt
75.  Indiana                 8.053     5.050     2.379   14 13  BigTen
76.  Houston                 7.957     5.756     5.281   21  6  CUSA
77.  Bradley                 7.883     7.007     6.502   15 10  MVC
78.  ArizonaState            7.879     5.983     5.155   21  8  PacTen
79.  TennesseeTech           7.870     6.305     6.079   20  7  OVC
80.  St.Marys                7.852     6.135     4.789   15 11  WCC
81.  MiddleTennessee         7.787     5.839     4.382   15 12  SunBelt
82.  Oregon                  7.652     5.460     3.715   15 12  PacTen
83.  GeorgiaTech             7.486     5.722     4.120   15 12  ACC
84.  Pepperdine              7.456     5.748     3.771   20  7  WCC
85.  Tulane                  7.360     5.033     4.281   19  9  CUSA
86.  Louisville              7.329     4.667     3.042   16 11  CUSA
87.  MichiganState           7.251     4.506     2.445   16 11  BigTen
88.  GeorgeWashington        7.203     4.924     4.035   20  7  ATen
89.  DePaul                  7.173     4.094     2.118   15 12  CUSA
90.  Harvard                 7.059     6.074     5.905   19  5  Ivy
91.  Toledo                  7.016     5.722     4.593   16  9  MAC
92.  Rice                    6.854     5.347     4.985   19  7  WAC
93.  Pacific                 6.719     5.552     5.194   16 10  BigWest
94.  AlabamaState            6.593     6.458     7.521   17  6  SWAC
95.  OklahomaState           6.554     3.769     0.157   14 14  BigTwelve
96.  NewHampshire            6.506     5.717     5.194   14 11  AmEast
97.  Hawaii                  6.462     4.959     4.392   19  6  WAC
98.  KentState               6.406     4.767     4.127   16 10  MAC
99.  WestVirginia            6.358     4.190     3.423   14 12  BigEast
100. NorthCarolinaState      6.332     3.793     0.617   13 13  ACC
101. MiamiFla.               6.192     2.756     1.791   16 10  BigEast
102. Virginia                6.044     3.922     0.830   16 11  ACC
103. MontanaState            6.031     4.610     4.994   15 10  BigSky
104. LoyolaMarymount         5.891     4.414     2.211   15 12  WCC
105. Wyoming                 5.887     4.083     2.194   11 13  MWC
106. Arizona                 5.848     3.710     1.102   14 13  PacTen
107. Charlotte               5.844     3.739     2.841   15 12  CUSA
108. NorthernIowa            5.844     4.273     2.381   12 15  MVC
109. SWMissouriState         5.756     3.885     2.737   16  9  MVC
110. NorthwesternState       5.722     5.848     8.027   19  5  Southland
111. Belmont                 5.678     5.595     7.425   17  7  AtlSun
112. Evansville              5.656     3.730     1.715   14 12  MVC
113. Liberty                 5.647     5.094     6.275   20  7  BigSouth
114. FloridaState            5.630     3.680     1.837   13 14  ACC
115. Furman                  5.539     4.471     3.129   16 11  Southern
116. Marquette               5.447     2.479     0.087   13 13  CUSA
117. Wofford                 5.364     4.606     3.778   13 12  Southern
118. Massachusetts           5.299     3.558     2.142   10 17  ATen
119. RhodeIsland             5.199     3.554     3.288   15 12  ATen
120. Duquesne                5.194     3.085     2.924   13 14  ATen
121. Nebraska                5.129     2.440    -0.145   14 14  BigTwelve
122. Manhattan               4.998     4.432     4.092   17 10  MAAC
123. Missouri                4.989     2.164    -0.411   14 12  BigTwelve
124. Maine                   4.963     3.737     2.791   16 10  AmEast
125. SanFrancisco            4.828     3.371     1.325   17 10  WCC
126. SEMissouriState         4.820     4.127     4.281   13 11  OVC
127. EasternMichigan         4.811     3.902     2.601   15 10  MAC
128. MiamiOhio               4.706     2.941     2.560   16 10  MAC
129. AustinPeay              4.702     3.937     3.680   16 11  OVC
130. Richmond                4.697     2.660     0.961   14 15  ATen
131. UNCWilmington           4.684     4.105     4.199   14 12  Colonial
132. BostonUniversity        4.589     3.741     3.151   16 10  AmEast
133. GeorgiaState            4.497     4.068     4.290   16  9  AtlSun
134. Maryland                4.471     2.323     0.181   11 16  ACC
135. TexasA&MCorpusChristi   4.449     3.621     3.678   13 12  Independent
136. Tulsa                   4.386     2.937     3.453   16 11  WAC
137. Dayton                  4.340     2.085     0.689   11 16  ATen
138. WesternIllinois         4.329     3.558     3.765   12 11  MidCon
139. LongBeachState          4.325     3.373     4.399   14 12  BigWest
140. SetonHall               4.323     1.405     0.307   13 13  BigEast
141. Howard                  4.242     4.368     4.368   16  9  MEAC
142. Binghamton              4.205     3.687     4.292   18  8  AmEast
143. SanDiego                4.024     2.721     2.619   13 14  WCC
144. Portland                3.985     2.822     0.556   13 14  WCC
145. OhioState               3.983     1.375    -0.304   13 14  BigTen
146. WeberState              3.974     2.726     4.233   18  8  BigSky
147. Memphis                 3.941     1.074     0.011   11 16  CUSA
148. WesternMichigan         3.874     2.379     2.301   14 12  MAC
149. Kentucky                3.706    -0.180    -3.476    8 19  SEC
150. Providence              3.541     0.686    -2.043   12 14  BigEast
151. GeorgiaSouthern         3.501     2.741     1.521   12 13  Southern
152. Bucknell                3.497     2.808     3.593   17  9  Patriot
153. ArkansasState           3.425     1.364    -0.557   12 15  SunBelt
154. NorthernIllinois        3.323     2.085     1.055   14 11  MAC
155. WichitaState            3.218     1.473     0.187   12 13  MVC
156. Hartford                3.096     2.353     1.743   12 14  AmEast
157. JacksonState            3.094     3.164     4.421   12 11  SWAC
158. Cornell                 3.092     2.952     3.830   14 11  Ivy
159. IndianaState            3.076     1.828     0.959   11 15  MVC
160. Rutgers                 3.031    -0.191    -2.788    8 18  BigEast
161. TexasA&M                2.662     0.270    -0.731   13 14  BigTwelve
162. Mercer                  2.641     2.486     3.695   14 11  AtlSun
163. JamesMadison            2.558     1.479     0.427   14 11  Colonial
164. Gonzaga                 2.527     1.466     1.351    8 17  WCC
165. St.Bonaventure          2.412     0.627    -0.929   13 14  ATen
166. St.FrancisPa.           2.357     2.153     3.299   16 11  Northeast
167. VirginiaCommonwealth    2.327     1.275     0.553   14 12  Colonial
168. SanJoseState            2.216     1.240     1.388   15 10  WAC
169. Georgetown              2.214    -0.243    -0.006   12 14  BigEast
170. Oakland                 2.144     0.719     0.161   13 12  MidCon
171. Xavier                  2.135     0.011    -2.080   10 18  ATen
172. MoreheadState           2.039     1.645     1.880   16  7  OVC
173. Marist                  2.037     1.305     0.887   11 16  MAAC
174. SouthFlorida            1.821    -0.167    -0.522   13 13  CUSA
175. Fairfield               1.760     0.789    -1.056   12 15  MAAC
176. Monmouth                1.726     1.632     3.236   16 11  Northeast
177. CollegeofCharleston     1.634     1.251     0.505   11 13  Southern
178. Grambling               1.538     1.567     2.421   14  8  SWAC
179. Hampton                 1.536     1.303     3.039   15 11  MEAC
180. SacredHeart             1.329     1.499     3.037   17 10  Northeast
181. SaintLouis              1.327    -0.661    -1.147   13 14  CUSA
182. Ohio                    1.177     0.166     1.782   12 14  MAC
183. UAB                     1.174    -0.857    -1.677   12 15  CUSA
184. GeorgeMason             1.157    -0.045    -0.966   15 13  Colonial
185. Elon                    0.998     1.024     2.292   13 12  BigSouth
186. Yale                    0.904     0.575     1.567   14 11  Ivy
187. Lipscomb                0.821     0.122     1.460    9 12  Independent
188. Davidson                0.813    -0.010    -1.369    9 17  Southern
189. AlcornState             0.782     1.150     1.094   11 11  SWAC
190. Drexel                  0.662     0.007    -0.637   12 14  Colonial
191. Dartmouth               0.630    -0.315    -0.520    9 15  Ivy
192. American                0.527     0.275     0.651   12 14  Patriot
193. Pennsylvania            0.516    -0.247    -0.524   10 14  Ivy
194. Detroit                 0.508    -0.213     0.096   13 13  Horizon
195. TennesseeMartin         0.370    -0.565    -1.448    7 19  OVC
196. NorfolkState            0.303     1.007     3.392   14  8  MEAC
197. Pittsburgh              0.294    -2.587    -4.398    8 18  BigEast
198. UCRiverside             0.257    -0.363     1.048   13 11  BigWest
199. EastCarolina            0.255    -1.653    -3.269    5 21  CUSA
200. StonyBrook              0.227    -0.542    -0.860   14 11  AmEast
201. Wagner                  0.174     0.283     0.909   13 14  Northeast
202. OralRoberts             0.150    -1.082    -2.306   10 14  MidCon
203. WakeForest              0.102    -1.354    -2.860   12 15  ACC
204. CalPoly                 0.026    -0.825    -0.932    9 15  BigWest
205. Canisius               -0.047    -0.823    -2.243   12 15  MAAC
206. Rider                  -0.119    -0.786    -0.833    7 20  MAAC
207. TexasArlington         -0.169    -0.093     0.754   12 13  Southland
208. NewMexicoState         -0.206    -1.529    -1.143   12 15  SunBelt
209. BethuneCookman         -0.276     0.303     3.031   11 11  MEAC
210. LongIsland             -0.284    -0.097     1.462   16 11  Northeast
211. CentralFlorida         -0.319    -0.820    -0.561   15 12  AtlSun
212. Lehigh                 -0.378    -0.522    -0.807   12 15  Patriot
213. SouthCarolinaState     -0.382     0.194     0.353   13 10  MEAC
214. SanDiegoState          -0.454    -1.670    -2.241   10 14  MWC
215. WesternCarolina        -0.457    -0.894    -1.271   15 10  Southern
216. FloridaAtlantic        -0.467    -1.071    -1.720   13 12  AtlSun
217. IUPUI                  -0.555    -1.546    -1.548    9 15  MidCon
218. Navy                   -0.579    -0.664     1.344   13 14  Patriot
219. William&Mary           -0.607    -1.491     0.094   10 15  Colonial
220. Quinnipiac             -0.683    -0.650     0.126   13 13  Northeast
221. BirminghamSouthern     -0.720    -0.502     2.233   14 11  BigSouth
222. SMU                    -0.753    -2.332    -4.182    9 17  WAC
223. LoyolaIll.             -0.814    -1.496     0.068   14 13  Horizon
224. Princeton              -0.864    -1.189    -0.640    9 15  Ivy
225. HighPoint              -0.864    -1.350    -0.622   12 14  BigSouth
226. Fordham                -0.914    -2.441    -3.940    5 22  ATen
227. SouthernUtah           -0.971    -1.424    -1.389    7 16  MidCon
228. Colgate                -1.008    -1.014    -1.145   12 16  Patriot
229. AppalachianState       -1.043    -1.703    -2.422    9 18  Southern
230. LoyolaMd.              -1.067    -1.605    -1.200   11 16  MAAC
231. Campbell               -1.071    -1.162     0.052   13 13  AtlSun
232. TexasSanAntonio        -1.160    -1.352    -0.243   15 11  Southland
233. UCIrvine               -1.169    -1.877    -1.365    8 18  BigWest
234. Stetson                -1.228    -1.252    -0.426   11 13  AtlSun
235. MurrayState            -1.387    -2.350    -2.537    7 16  OVC
236. MarylandBaltimoreCo    -1.544    -1.369    -0.637   12 15  Northeast
237. PortlandState          -1.550    -2.492    -2.163   10 16  BigSky
238. Mt.St.Marys            -1.616    -1.524     0.105   12 15  Northeast
239. CoppinState            -1.683    -1.359    -1.226   12 13  MEAC
240. ChicagoState           -1.727    -2.526    -2.938    9 16  MidCon
241. EastTennesseeState     -1.733    -2.224    -2.391   10 17  Southern
242. IllinoisChicago        -1.746    -2.319    -1.239   13 14  Horizon
243. BowlingGreen           -1.755    -2.539    -2.675    8 18  MAC
244. SWTexasState           -1.836    -1.921    -0.014   12 14  Southland
245. Marshall               -1.949    -2.620    -2.520    7 18  MAC
246. JacksonvilleState      -1.969    -2.265    -2.609    7 18  AtlSun
247. CentralMichigan        -2.062    -3.017    -3.442    8 16  MAC
248. Columbia               -2.078    -1.792    -1.738   10 13  Ivy
249. TroyState              -2.115    -2.287    -2.553    9 16  AtlSun
250. SouthernMississippi    -2.145    -4.054    -4.849   10 16  CUSA
251. YoungstownState        -2.158    -2.620    -1.696   11 15  Horizon
252. IllinoisState          -2.248    -3.692    -5.660    6 20  MVC
253. Niagara                -2.254    -3.010    -3.289    9 18  MAAC
254. IdahoState             -2.431    -2.764    -1.892    9 15  BigSky
255. Hofstra                -2.448    -3.091    -2.882    9 17  Colonial
256. Buffalo                -2.553    -3.603    -3.766    9 17  MAC
257. TexasSouthern          -2.579    -2.407    -0.884    8 14  SWAC
258. FairleighDickinson     -2.675    -2.282    -0.372   14 13  Northeast
259. Northwestern           -2.786    -5.463    -8.631    4 23  BigTen
260. FresnoState            -3.132    -4.123    -2.929    9 17  WAC
261. Idaho                  -3.139    -3.784    -3.184   10 15  BigWest
262. ClevelandState         -3.147    -3.786    -3.165   11 14  Horizon
263. California             -3.154    -4.622    -5.185    7 20  PacTen
264. NewOrleans             -3.346    -4.289    -4.614   10 17  SunBelt
265. CharlestonSouthern     -3.383    -3.672    -3.106    8 15  BigSouth
266. LouisianaLafayette     -3.526    -4.779    -4.910    7 20  SunBelt
267. UMKC                   -3.581    -4.280    -3.651    7 19  MidCon
268. Army                   -3.648    -3.919    -2.725    9 17  Patriot
269. ArkansasLittleRock     -3.733    -5.032    -5.751    8 18  SunBelt
270. UCLA                   -3.762    -5.603    -7.642    8 19  PacTen
271. Kansas                 -3.936    -5.965    -9.045    4 23  BigTwelve
272. LaSalle                -3.962    -5.581    -6.104    6 21  ATen
273. AlabamaA&M             -4.104    -3.718    -1.820    9 12  SWAC
274. EasternWashington      -4.126    -4.840    -5.041    8 15  BigSky
275. SELouisiana            -4.518    -4.662    -2.871    8 17  Southland
276. LouisianaMonroe        -4.814    -4.766    -3.404    9 16  Southland
277. Nevada                 -4.819    -6.117    -6.492    9 16  WAC
278. Iona                   -4.823    -5.372    -5.459    7 20  MAAC
279. BoiseState             -4.862    -5.812    -5.376    9 17  WAC
280. Northeastern           -5.028    -5.908    -7.782    5 20  AmEast
281. Albany                 -5.254    -5.520    -5.947    4 21  AmEast
282. Radford                -5.276    -5.446    -3.703   11 14  BigSouth
283. NichollsState          -5.354    -5.124    -3.866   10 15  Southland
284. FloridaA&M             -5.703    -5.071    -2.448    9 16  MEAC
285. Brown                  -5.742    -6.548    -6.217    5 19  Ivy
286. CoastalCarolina        -5.908    -5.938    -4.683    7 17  BigSouth
287. MarylandEasternShore   -5.921    -5.298    -2.929   11 15  MEAC
288. Winthrop               -6.217    -5.986    -4.919    7 17  BigSouth
289. AirForce               -7.355    -8.710    -9.464    4 21  MWC
290. SouthernIllinois       -7.389    -8.300    -8.400    6 19  MVC
291. EasternIllinois        -7.642    -8.366    -8.806    6 20  OVC
292. McNeeseState           -7.756    -7.607    -6.483    6 19  Southland
293. DelawareState          -8.030    -7.407    -5.978    7 16  MEAC
294. TennesseeState         -8.296    -8.888   -10.196    3 22  OVC
295. WrightState            -9.228    -9.577    -9.708    6 20  Horizon
296. CalStateNorthridge     -9.307   -10.562   -11.059    2 23  BigWest
297. Lafayette              -9.324    -9.298    -9.786    3 24  Patriot
298. Butler                 -9.342   -10.170   -10.919    2 25  Horizon
299. Lamar                  -9.350    -9.159    -8.178    7 18  Southland
300. Jacksonville           -9.882    -9.882    -9.525    3 21  AtlSun
301. Centenary             -10.231    -9.873    -9.795    3 19  Independent
302. St.FrancisN.Y.        -10.414   -10.065    -8.653    5 22  Northeast
303. St.Johns              -10.483   -12.322   -12.932    3 23  BigEast
304. RobertMorris          -10.858   -10.475    -9.934    3 22  Northeast
305. Samford               -10.937   -10.954   -10.876    3 21  AtlSun
306. MississippiValley     -11.154   -10.771    -9.072    2 20  SWAC
307. WashingtonState       -11.172   -12.741   -14.858    2 26  PacTen
308. TexasElPaso           -11.198   -11.913   -12.314    3 22  WAC
309. SamHoustonState       -11.747   -11.704   -11.782    2 24  Southland
310. CalStateFullerton     -11.799   -12.558   -11.242    4 21  BigWest
311. Akron                 -11.991   -12.584   -12.897    1 25  MAC
312. ArkansasPineBluff     -12.078   -11.913   -11.067    5 18  SWAC
313. TexasPanAmerican      -12.244   -13.002   -11.538    2 20  Independent
314. CentralConnecticut    -12.906   -12.505   -12.287    4 23  Northeast
315. PrairieViewA&M        -13.560   -13.429   -12.305    4 17  SWAC
316. Towson                -14.458   -14.963   -15.172    2 24  Colonial
317. MorganState           -14.902   -14.431   -13.865    1 24  MEAC
318. NorthCarolinaA&T      -15.451   -14.553   -13.516    1 20  MEAC
319. UNCAsheville          -16.061   -16.000   -15.538    1 25  BigSouth
320. MorrisBrown           -19.172   -18.719   -18.179    1 20  Independent
321. CalStateSacramento    -21.037   -21.560   -22.955    0 25  BigSky

Sun Feb 24 20:27:07 PST 2002

Calculations by Curtis Schmelling, made possible by MacPerl and Java!

(C) Copyright 1997-2002, Curtis Schmelling

You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All Rights Reserved