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Home Team RPIs Conference RPIs n-Rating All Selection Data Archive Schedules Notes on My Calculations Women's RPI Links

NCAA Women's Basketball n-Rating

Games through 20 January 2002


Mean home advantage: 5.8988  SD: 18.8305


N1 = raw expected winning margin
N2 = expected winning margin, adjusted once for opponents' strength


rank team                   n-Rating    N2        N1     W   L conference 


1.   Connecticut            34.333    28.889    22.729   20  0  BigEast
2.   Tennessee              28.945    21.791    13.240   16  1  SEC
3.   Duke                   23.409    18.647    14.978   15  3  ACC
4.   Vanderbilt             23.373    17.690    13.240   18  3  SEC
5.   LouisianaTech          23.244    17.773    14.150   12  3  WAC
6.   Stanford               22.545    15.870    13.010   18  1  PacTen
7.   Purdue                 22.049    15.658    11.401   14  3  BigTen
8.   Oklahoma               21.791    15.980    10.059   15  2  BigTwelve
9.   OldDominion            20.578    15.925    11.401   11  5  Colonial
10.  TexasTech              19.272    13.590     8.629   11  5  BigTwelve
11.  SouthCarolina          18.959    14.132    10.151   17  2  SEC
12.  LSU                    18.757    13.470     8.831   10  6  SEC
13.  Colorado               18.490    13.507     9.406   13  6  BigTwelve
14.  VirginiaTech           17.534    13.387    10.886   14  2  BigEast
15.  IowaState              17.295    12.670     9.356   14  4  BigTwelve
16.  Wisconsin              17.028    10.868     7.287   16  2  BigTen
17.  Cincinnati             16.743    13.626    12.073   13  4  CUSA
18.  Georgia                16.605    12.808     9.507   13  4  SEC
19.  KansasState            16.348    12.937     9.236   17  2  BigTwelve
20.  UNLV                   16.164    13.222    11.935   14  3  MWC
21.  UCSantaBarbara         15.999    10.684     7.673    9  5  BigWest
22.  NotreDame              15.677    11.162     7.632   10  6  BigEast
23.  Baylor                 15.594    11.631    11.089   14  3  BigTwelve
24.  Michigan               15.530     9.847     6.307   12  7  BigTen
25.  Illinois               15.309     9.921     8.123   12  5  BigTen
26.  Texas                  15.309    10.592     5.954   13  3  BigTwelve
27.  Syracuse               15.199    10.620     7.319   10  6  BigEast
28.  Auburn                 14.840    11.190     8.648   14  4  SEC
29.  Minnesota              14.748     9.737     6.556   14  3  BigTen
30.  USC                    14.730     8.960     7.572   10  8  PacTen
31.  Utah                   14.656    10.427     9.673    8  7  MWC
32.  Florida                14.491     9.893     5.820   13  5  SEC
33.  SantaClara             14.371    10.923     7.222   13  4  WCC
34.  BostonCollege          14.206    10.050     8.831   14  3  BigEast
35.  NorthCarolina          14.160    10.086     7.999   14  4  ACC
36.  TCU                    14.049    10.326     7.071   14  3  CUSA
37.  HolyCross              13.911    10.666     9.015   12  5  Patriot
38.  ColoradoState          13.801    10.261     8.482   15  3  MWC
39.  Southern               13.663    14.114    12.698   11  3  SWAC
40.  PennState              13.397     8.248     4.832   11  8  BigTen
41.  Mississippi            13.369     9.700     6.643    9  9  SEC
42.  Bradley                13.056    11.291    11.052   11  5  MVC
43.  Iowa                   12.955     8.850     6.068   12  5  BigTen
44.  Alabama                12.505     8.436     6.128   11  7  SEC
45.  St.Josephs             12.449     9.498     9.047   14  3  ATen
46.  MississippiState       12.440     8.114     5.379   12  6  SEC
47.  Washington             12.431     6.901     5.457   10  8  PacTen
48.  FloridaInternational   12.404     8.123     5.218   14  5  SunBelt
49.  Creighton              12.312     9.866     9.424   12  5  MVC
50.  NewMexico              11.898     8.252     5.503   14  4  MWC
51.  EasternKentucky        11.778     9.319     8.799   12  3  OVC
52.  SouthAlabama           11.631    10.785    12.459   14  4  SunBelt
53.  FloridaState           11.594     8.390     6.942   11  7  ACC
54.  Chattanooga            11.567     8.795     9.236   10  6  Southern
55.  Missouri               11.070     7.875     5.627   12  4  BigTwelve
56.  GeorgiaTech            11.006     7.388     5.195   11  6  ACC
57.  Drake                  10.978     7.204     5.448   12  5  MVC
58.  Indiana                10.978     5.360     1.860    8 10  BigTen
59.  MichiganState          10.932     6.386     4.678   12  6  BigTen
60.  Arkansas               10.896     7.094     4.512   10  7  SEC
61.  St.Peters              10.684     8.533     8.110   13  3  MAAC
62.  Rice                   10.666     7.140     6.285   12  4  WAC
63.  Clemson                10.666     6.418     3.310   10  7  ACC
64.  NorthCarolinaState     10.601     5.590     1.883    9  8  ACC
65.  Pacific                10.362     7.627     5.379    9  6  BigWest
66.  WesternKentucky        10.353     5.981     1.889   11  6  SunBelt
67.  ArizonaState           10.335     6.087     5.747   15  5  PacTen
68.  Montana                10.086     7.572     7.038   10  5  BigSky
69.  TennesseeTech          10.068     7.356     5.512   11  5  OVC
70.  NorthTexas             10.050     5.908     3.632   10  6  SunBelt
71.  WisconsinGreenBay       9.930     7.636     6.468   12  5  Horizon
72.  Temple                  9.847     5.567     2.689    9  8  ATen
73.  Wofford                 9.719     8.146     7.438    9  6  Southern
74.  Valparaiso              9.664     7.733     5.944   11  4  MidCon
75.  Denver                  9.443     6.597     5.296    8 11  SunBelt
76.  UNCGreensboro           9.415     7.383     4.859   11  5  Southern
77.  BYU                     9.401     6.018     6.491   11  6  MWC
78.  OregonState             9.401     4.064     0.832   10  9  PacTen
79.  Nebraska                9.351     6.422     3.997   12  7  BigTwelve
80.  DePaul                  9.328     4.823     2.538   11  7  CUSA
81.  RhodeIsland             9.296     6.514     6.882    9  6  ATen
82.  Pepperdine              9.043     5.586     3.788   13  4  WCC
83.  Belmont                 8.988     8.638    11.668   11  2  AtlSun
84.  Villanova               8.960     5.673     4.370   10  6  BigEast
85.  BallState               8.845     6.661     7.337   10  4  MAC
86.  Oregon                  8.841     4.105     2.299   10  8  PacTen
87.  NorthernArizona         8.804     6.533     6.243    9  7  BigSky
88.  Houston                 8.739     6.597     6.436   12  5  CUSA
89.  WestVirginia            8.707     6.639     6.229   10  6  BigEast
90.  WisconsinMilwaukee      8.657     5.719     5.034   12  5  Horizon
91.  GeorgeWashington        8.648     4.402     3.014   11  6  ATen
92.  Louisville              8.629     5.057     2.676   11  7  CUSA
93.  LongBeachState          8.436     6.436     7.917    8  8  BigWest
94.  SanDiego                8.330     5.852     6.827   11  6  WCC
95.  Maryland                8.330     4.561     2.579    9  8  ACC
96.  MiddleTennessee         8.307     5.140     3.391    9  9  SunBelt
97.  Virginia                8.275     4.551     1.198   10  8  ACC
98.  Gonzaga                 8.271     5.967     7.632    7  8  WCC
99.  UNCWilmington           8.266     7.319     8.183    9  7  Colonial
100. Siena                   8.248     6.335     6.753   12  3  MAAC
101. Evansville              8.206     4.246     1.984    8  8  MVC
102. Tulane                  8.142     5.774     5.324   14  5  CUSA
103. MiamiFla.               8.137     4.140     2.211   11  6  BigEast
104. NorthernIowa            8.013     4.781     2.492   10  8  MVC
105. Portland                7.995     5.089     3.492    9  8  WCC
106. Vermont                 7.967     4.864     2.747    8  7  AmEast
107. OklahomaState           7.746     3.928     2.220   10  8  BigTwelve
108. St.Marys                7.673     4.030     3.441    8  8  WCC
109. Duquesne                7.604     4.020     3.655    8  9  ATen
110. Kentucky                7.576     2.899     0.326    8 10  SEC
111. Rutgers                 7.567     3.073    -0.541    5 11  BigEast
112. Delaware                7.535     6.055     7.140   11  4  Colonial
113. Furman                  7.333     5.342     3.722   10  7  Southern
114. Marquette               7.236     2.880     0.674   10  7  CUSA
115. LoyolaMarymount         7.098     4.280     2.340   10  7  WCC
116. GeorgiaState            7.061     6.574     5.154    8  5  AtlSun
117. Hawaii                  7.057     3.568     2.269   11  4  WAC
118. Maine                   7.034     4.873     3.191   10  7  AmEast
119. MontanaState            7.002     3.974     4.089    8  8  BigSky
120. NewHampshire            6.896     5.517     5.976    9  7  AmEast
121. Harvard                 6.583     4.758     3.901   10  5  Ivy
122. Wyoming                 6.528     3.611     2.276    8  7  MWC
123. KentState               6.478     4.027     2.218    8  9  MAC
124. Toledo                  6.381     4.135     2.430    8  7  MAC
125. SWMissouriState         6.363     3.370     1.073    8  7  MVC
126. Binghamton              6.321     5.990     7.530   13  3  AmEast
127. Arizona                 6.165     1.193    -1.263    9  9  PacTen
128. NorthwesternState       6.124     6.409     8.735   10  4  Southland
129. OhioState               6.055     1.855     0.451    9 10  BigTen
130. SanFrancisco            5.940     2.903     0.395    9  8  WCC
131. SetonHall               5.857     2.407     1.437    9  8  BigEast
132. WesternIllinois         5.825     4.344     4.777    7  7  MidCon
133. Providence              5.742     2.471    -0.684    8 10  BigEast
134. Manhattan               5.682     4.873     4.232    9  7  MAAC
135. Charlotte               5.337     3.108     2.600    9  8  CUSA
136. Liberty                 5.135     3.416     4.593   10  6  BigSouth
137. TexasA&M                4.947     2.526     3.947   10  7  BigTwelve
138. Georgetown              4.915     1.889     0.917    9  8  BigEast
139. MiamiOhio               4.832     1.896     1.988   11  6  MAC
140. Massachusetts           4.664     1.781    -0.054    3 13  ATen
141. Memphis                 4.551     1.039     0.124    8 10  CUSA
142. AustinPeay              4.411     3.259     4.363   10  6  OVC
143. AlabamaState            4.351     4.873     7.507    8  5  SWAC
144. SEMissouriState         4.351     2.876     4.296    9  6  OVC
145. TexasA&MCorpusChristi   4.296     3.308     2.457    9 10  Independent
146. ArkansasState           4.133     0.805    -2.036    7 11  SunBelt
147. Tulsa                   4.126     1.729     3.124   10  7  WAC
148. Mercer                  4.046     3.680     5.360    6  7  AtlSun
149. Hartford                3.938     2.262     2.007    7  9  AmEast
150. EasternMichigan         3.788     2.331     2.106    8  7  MAC
151. SanJoseState            3.761     1.161     1.586    9  7  WAC
152. WeberState              3.676     1.202     2.264   12  6  BigSky
153. Marist                  3.653     2.529     2.057    9  8  MAAC
154. Richmond                3.613     0.611    -2.043    8 11  ATen
155. St.Bonaventure          3.611     1.388     0.108   10  7  ATen
156. WesternMichigan         3.590     1.069     1.977    8  9  MAC
157. Monmouth                3.570     3.218     4.161    9  7  Northeast
158. Drexel                  3.503     2.133     2.407    9  7  Colonial
159. SouthFlorida            3.478     1.784     2.699   11  6  CUSA
160. CollegeofCharleston     3.434     3.174     3.145    8  6  Southern
161. NorthernIllinois        3.423     1.276     0.618    9  7  MAC
162. JamesMadison            3.365     1.627     1.014   11  4  Colonial
163. StephenF.Austin         3.266     2.609     3.586   10  5  Southland
164. BostonUniversity        2.855     1.839     1.575    9  7  AmEast
165. UCIrvine                2.694     1.225     1.292    6 11  BigWest
166. Pittsburgh              2.671    -0.969    -3.327    6 11  BigEast
167. WichitaState            2.657    -0.344    -2.247    8  8  MVC
168. Bucknell                2.508     1.669     2.931   10  6  Patriot
169. NewMexicoState          2.324     0.207     0.933    9  9  SunBelt
170. SanDiegoState           2.191     0.561     1.221    8  7  MWC
171. Xavier                  2.175    -1.192    -3.001    7 11  ATen
172. Dayton                  2.050    -1.629    -3.077    7 10  ATen
173. VirginiaCommonwealth    2.002    -0.031    -0.914    8  9  Colonial
174. MoreheadState           1.984     1.349     2.510    8  4  OVC
175. Fairfield               1.712    -0.052    -1.934    8  9  MAAC
176. GeorgeMason             1.561    -0.856    -3.240    9  9  Colonial
177. FresnoState             1.329    -1.181     0.301    8  9  WAC
178. CalPoly                 1.193    -1.243    -0.790    5 10  BigWest
179. Davidson                1.119    -0.119    -1.700    5 10  Southern
180. SMU                     1.092    -2.176    -4.300    6 11  WAC
181. Dartmouth               1.055    -0.824    -0.792    5 10  Ivy
182. LouisianaLafayette      1.048    -0.666    -1.541    6 12  SunBelt
183. UCRiverside             1.046    -0.144     1.241    6  7  BigWest
184. Fordham                 1.034    -1.691    -2.939    3 14  ATen
185. EastCarolina            0.982    -1.020    -2.387    3 13  CUSA
186. Princeton               0.979     0.283     1.703    8  7  Ivy
187. American                0.975     0.614     1.878    7  9  Patriot
188. Northwestern            0.961    -2.695    -6.702    4 14  BigTen
189. Ohio                    0.959    -0.043     2.593    8  8  MAC
190. JacksonState            0.887     1.322     2.922    6  8  SWAC
191. GeorgiaSouthern         0.851    -0.507    -1.406    6  9  Southern
192. UAB                     0.821    -1.015    -1.220    8 10  CUSA
193. Detroit                 0.607    -1.371    -1.031    7  9  Horizon
194. Cornell                 0.591     1.078     2.368    9  7  Ivy
195. Yale                    0.533     0.694     2.988    9  7  Ivy
196. WakeForest              0.464    -2.364    -3.555    8  9  ACC
197. StonyBrook              0.457    -0.820    -0.792    9  5  AmEast
198. SaintLouis              0.451    -1.592    -0.801   10  8  CUSA
199. Hofstra                 0.354    -0.967    -1.525    5 11  Colonial
200. Oakland                 0.170    -2.077    -2.859    7 10  MidCon
201. Wagner                  0.097    -0.047     0.451    6 10  Northeast
202. IllinoisChicago         0.076    -1.020     0.510   10  8  Horizon
203. AppalachianState        0.076    -0.677    -0.176    6 11  Southern
204. IndianaState           -0.031    -1.893    -1.652    6  9  MVC
205. PortlandState          -0.033    -2.551    -1.877    6 11  BigSky
206. NorfolkState           -0.158     1.283     5.682    7  4  MEAC
207. Hampton                -0.222    -0.530     1.092    8  8  MEAC
208. Howard                 -0.259     0.161     0.614    8  8  MEAC
209. California             -0.293    -3.323    -3.693    6 11  PacTen
210. Elon                   -0.337    -0.643     2.032    7  8  BigSouth
211. LoyolaIll.             -0.394    -2.020     0.257   10  7  Horizon
212. St.FrancisPa.          -0.401    -1.082     0.972    8  7  Northeast
213. TennesseeMartin        -0.420    -2.364    -3.265    3 12  OVC
214. Rider                  -0.617    -1.518    -0.656    3 13  MAAC
215. Lipscomb               -0.774    -1.964    -2.392    3 12  Independent
216. OralRoberts            -0.804    -2.806    -3.787    7  8  MidCon
217. Navy                   -0.850    -0.629     2.333    8  9  Patriot
218. Canisius               -0.928    -2.245    -3.955    7 10  MAAC
219. MurrayState            -0.948    -3.254    -2.116    4  9  OVC
220. WesternCarolina        -1.093    -1.709    -0.767   10  5  Southern
221. SouthernUtah           -1.185    -2.486    -2.010    5 10  MidCon
222. Stetson                -1.240    -1.298    -0.017    5  9  AtlSun
223. UCLA                   -1.298    -5.603    -8.532    5 12  PacTen
224. Colgate                -1.318    -0.981    -1.282    7 10  Patriot
225. CentralMichigan        -1.429    -2.399    -1.553    7  8  MAC
226. IdahoState             -1.475    -2.544    -1.597    7  8  BigSky
227. CentralFlorida         -1.539    -2.599    -0.714   10  6  AtlSun
228. Quinnipiac             -1.569    -1.557    -0.884    7  9  Northeast
229. MarylandBaltimoreCo    -1.741    -1.709    -0.689    6  9  Northeast
230. Pennsylvania           -1.746    -3.546    -4.288    4 10  Ivy
231. Buffalo                -1.785    -2.888    -2.730    7 10  MAC
232. IUPUI                  -1.893    -3.360    -2.934    5 11  MidCon
233. EastTennesseeState     -1.916    -2.746    -2.162    7 10  Southern
234. Campbell               -2.049    -1.833    -0.985    7  7  AtlSun
235. YoungstownState        -2.059    -3.095    -0.751    6  9  Horizon
236. Kansas                 -2.088    -4.265    -6.803    4 14  BigTwelve
237. Grambling              -2.093    -1.833    -0.905    7  7  SWAC
238. SouthCarolinaState     -2.134    -0.523     0.299    8  7  MEAC
239. Marshall               -2.190    -2.794    -1.939    4 11  MAC
240. SouthernMississippi    -2.197    -3.127    -2.863    8  9  CUSA
241. William&Mary           -2.240    -4.054    -1.833    7  8  Colonial
242. IllinoisState          -2.259    -4.817    -6.518    4 12  MVC
243. ArkansasLittleRock     -2.295    -3.946    -5.576    4 12  SunBelt
244. ChicagoState           -2.298    -3.468    -4.035    6 10  MidCon
245. SacredHeart            -2.305    -1.923    -0.305    8  7  Northeast
246. AlcornState            -2.619    -0.684     1.253    8  4  SWAC
247. LongIsland             -2.865    -2.613    -0.470    8  7  Northeast
248. LoyolaMd.              -3.132    -4.006    -2.431    7  9  MAAC
249. CharlestonSouthern     -3.134    -4.081    -4.263    4  7  BigSouth
250. Northeastern           -3.155    -4.534    -6.624    3 14  AmEast
251. Idaho                  -3.157    -5.019    -3.762    7 11  BigWest
252. Lehigh                 -3.275    -3.132    -3.792    7 10  Patriot
253. Nevada                 -3.350    -6.270    -7.355    6 10  WAC
254. SWTexasState           -3.399    -3.753    -0.252    9  7  Southland
255. BoiseState             -3.562    -5.888    -7.102    5 13  WAC
256. TexasArlington         -3.675    -2.946    -1.263    8  8  Southland
257. HighPoint              -3.737    -5.208    -4.635    6  9  BigSouth
258. BethuneCookman         -3.930    -2.056     0.903    5  8  MEAC
259. FairleighDickinson     -3.934    -3.422     0.393    9  6  Northeast
260. Columbia               -4.125    -3.153    -2.298    6  8  Ivy
261. Mt.St.Marys            -4.132    -4.212    -1.410    6  9  Northeast
262. Army                   -4.146    -4.307    -1.323    6 10  Patriot
263. BirminghamSouthern     -4.150    -4.029     0.078    8  7  BigSouth
264. UMKC                   -4.543    -5.401    -4.281    4 13  MidCon
265. TexasSanAntonio        -4.654    -5.120    -3.562    7  8  Southland
266. LaSalle                -4.665    -6.858    -6.532    4 13  ATen
267. BowlingGreen           -4.776    -5.603    -5.245    4 12  MAC
268. CoastalCarolina        -4.785    -5.111    -4.178    4 10  BigSouth
269. NichollsState          -4.982    -4.164    -3.695    5  9  Southland
270. EasternWashington      -4.996    -6.757    -7.378    4 11  BigSky
271. Niagara                -5.157    -6.274    -5.667    3 14  MAAC
272. NewOrleans             -5.162    -5.930    -5.484    7 11  SunBelt
273. FloridaAtlantic        -5.332    -6.532    -6.500    6  9  AtlSun
274. Albany                 -5.493    -5.217    -4.854    4 10  AmEast
275. ClevelandState         -6.008    -7.768    -6.421    6 10  Horizon
276. TexasSouthern          -6.035    -5.212    -4.252    4  8  SWAC
277. LouisianaMonroe        -6.357    -5.888    -3.560    4 11  Southland
278. Brown                  -6.454    -6.923    -6.472    3 12  Ivy
279. CoppinState            -6.817    -6.113    -5.838    6 10  MEAC
280. JacksonvilleState      -6.858    -7.070    -8.679    2 12  AtlSun
281. CalStateNorthridge     -6.991   -10.297   -12.301    1 14  BigWest
282. Iona                   -7.166    -7.971    -7.267    5 11  MAAC
283. TroyState              -7.244    -7.368    -7.985    3 10  AtlSun
284. Butler                 -7.345    -9.042   -10.527    1 17  Horizon
285. MarylandEasternShore   -7.433    -5.704    -3.808    6 10  MEAC
286. Radford                -7.470    -7.902    -6.279    5 10  BigSouth
287. WashingtonState        -7.612   -11.216   -13.699    2 17  PacTen
288. AirForce               -8.058    -9.171    -8.706    4 12  MWC
289. SouthernIllinois       -8.095    -9.773    -8.145    4 12  MVC
290. TennesseeState         -8.256    -9.276   -10.711    2 12  OVC
291. St.Johns               -8.536    -9.791   -10.996    3 14  BigEast
292. SELouisiana            -8.642    -8.090    -7.451    2 12  Southland
293. WrightState            -8.794    -9.157   -10.159    3 13  Horizon
294. Lafayette              -9.180    -8.605    -9.672    2 14  Patriot
295. EasternIllinois        -9.497   -10.527   -11.584    2 14  OVC
296. FloridaA&M             -9.626    -7.796    -3.580    6 10  MEAC
297. AlabamaA&M             -9.653    -7.801    -6.849    3  8  SWAC
298. DelawareState          -9.690    -8.573    -7.010    5  9  MEAC
299. McNeeseState          -10.122    -9.433    -7.814    5 12  Southland
300. Centenary             -10.527    -9.754    -9.359    2 13  Independent
301. TexasElPaso           -10.600   -12.458   -12.191    3 12  WAC
302. Winthrop              -11.566   -11.033   -11.584    1 12  BigSouth
303. Lamar                 -13.000   -12.265    -9.332    5 11  Southland
304. CalStateFullerton     -13.276   -14.471   -13.589    2 14  BigWest
305. Jacksonville          -13.570   -13.359   -12.577    1 13  AtlSun
306. MississippiValley     -13.662   -12.228    -8.904    1 10  SWAC
307. St.FrancisN.Y.        -13.791   -12.816   -11.796    2 13  Northeast
308. Akron                 -13.956   -14.287   -13.782    1 16  MAC
309. Towson                -14.591   -14.968   -15.988    1 15  Colonial
310. TexasPanAmerican      -14.618   -15.722   -13.331    1 14  Independent
311. SamHoustonState       -14.683   -14.131   -13.828    1 15  Southland
312. ArkansasPineBluff     -14.738   -13.864   -11.060    3 10  SWAC
313. Samford               -15.409   -14.747   -14.048    1 12  AtlSun
314. MorganState           -16.623   -16.126   -15.510    0 16  MEAC
315. CentralConnecticut    -16.623   -16.200   -14.903    2 13  Northeast
316. RobertMorris          -18.820   -18.195   -17.469    0 13  Northeast
317. UNCAsheville          -18.848   -19.289   -19.657    0 15  BigSouth
318. PrairieViewA&M        -19.032   -18.848   -18.811    1 10  SWAC
319. NorthCarolinaA&T      -20.154   -17.340   -16.954    0 11  MEAC
320. CalStateSacramento    -21.643   -22.452   -24.089    0 16  BigSky
321. MorrisBrown           -23.317   -21.165   -19.584    1 11  Independent

Mon Jan 21 22:30:48 PST 2002

Calculations by Curtis Schmelling, made possible by MacPerl and Java!

(C) Copyright 1997-2002, Curtis Schmelling

You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All Rights Reserved