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Home Team RPIs Conference RPIs n-Rating All Selection Data Archive Schedules Notes on My Calculations Women's RPI Links

NCAA Women's Basketball n-Rating

Games through 9 March 2002 9:39 PM CST -- End of Regular Season


Mean home advantage: 5.2568  SD: 17.7862


N1 = raw expected winning margin
N2 = expected winning margin, adjusted once for opponents' strength


rank team                   n-Rating    N2        N1     W   L conference 


1.   Connecticut            32.012    28.486    23.153   33  0  BigEast
2.   OldDominion            21.017    18.689    16.119   25  5  Colonial
3.   Tennessee              19.454    15.763     9.788   25  4  SEC
4.   Oklahoma               19.176    16.188    11.941   27  3  BigTwelve
5.   LouisianaTech          19.072    17.352    15.589   25  4  WAC
6.   Duke                   18.099    16.258    13.453   27  3  ACC
7.   Vanderbilt             17.960    14.686    10.439   27  6  SEC
8.   Colorado               16.397    13.227    10.022   21  9  BigTwelve
9.   Stanford               16.249    14.191    12.593   30  2  PacTen
10.  Purdue                 15.563    12.784     8.963   23  5  BigTen
11.  UCSantaBarbara         15.233    13.513    11.959   25  5  BigWest
12.  Cincinnati             15.207    13.088    11.811   26  4  CUSA
13.  TexasTech              13.991    11.195     7.365   18 11  BigTwelve
14.  TCU                    13.600    11.073     9.197   23  6  CUSA
15.  Baylor                 13.496    11.099     8.346   26  5  BigTwelve
16.  IowaState              13.409    10.708     8.111   23  8  BigTwelve
17.  FloridaInternational   12.723    10.508     7.994   26  5  SunBelt
18.  NotreDame              12.610     9.736     6.813   19  9  BigEast
19.  Southern               12.419    12.185    12.115   24  4  SWAC
20.  BostonCollege          12.202     9.492     7.625   23  7  BigEast
21.  SouthCarolina          11.881     8.963     6.401   22  6  SEC
22.  LSU                    11.855     8.693     4.703   17 11  SEC
23.  Arkansas               11.681     8.893     6.018   19 11  SEC
24.  KansasState            11.594     9.475     6.349   24  7  BigTwelve
25.  Texas                  11.585     8.989     6.270   20  9  BigTwelve
26.  Georgia                11.559     8.789     5.619   19 10  SEC
27.  PennState              11.325     8.641     5.819   21 11  BigTen
28.  WisconsinGreenBay      11.281    10.265    10.691   24  6  Horizon
29.  NorthCarolina          11.264     9.414     6.657   24  8  ACC
30.  Chattanooga            11.021    10.013    10.031   23  7  Southern
31.  HolyCross              10.977     9.736     9.206   23  7  Patriot
32.  MississippiState       10.830     7.547     5.541   18 11  SEC
33.  VirginiaTech           10.804     7.981     5.128   17 10  BigEast
34.  Iowa                   10.804     8.290     5.402   17 10  BigTen
35.  ColoradoState          10.613     8.750     7.221   24  6  MWC
36.  UNLV                   10.491     9.371     7.469   23  7  MWC
37.  Creighton              10.404     9.119     8.910   24  6  MVC
38.  EasternKentucky        10.396     9.388     8.689   21  7  OVC
39.  St.Peters              10.135     9.241     8.172   25  5  MAAC
40.  NorthTexas             10.100     8.107     6.123   20  8  SunBelt
41.  Illinois                9.970     7.082     4.781   14 13  BigTen
42.  Minnesota               9.935     7.603     5.085   21  7  BigTen
43.  UNCGreensboro           9.901     8.963     7.226   21  9  Southern
44.  Montana                 9.840     8.641     9.518   17 10  BigSky
45.  BYU                     9.770     8.324     7.473   22  8  MWC
46.  Drake                   9.727     8.068     6.375   23  7  MVC
47.  Florida                 9.640     6.683     3.226   18 10  SEC
48.  NewMexico               9.518     7.755     5.523   22  8  MWC
49.  SantaClara              9.458     8.207     5.853   21  9  WCC
50.  Michigan                9.440     6.909     4.599   17 12  BigTen
51.  Temple                  9.362     6.956     5.615   20 10  ATen
52.  Alabama                 9.362     6.170     3.645   17 11  SEC
53.  Wisconsin               9.353     6.757     4.036   19 11  BigTen
54.  BallState               9.310     8.042     7.725   21  7  MAC
55.  Syracuse                9.293     6.622     4.260   18 12  BigEast
56.  Washington              9.102     7.200     6.014   17 11  PacTen
57.  Delaware                9.093     8.541     8.098   23  6  Colonial
58.  StephenF.Austin         9.084     8.893     9.267   24  5  Southland
59.  Vermont                 8.954     7.625     6.891   21  8  AmEast
60.  St.Josephs              8.837     7.339     6.831   23  7  ATen
61.  Indiana                 8.811     6.257     3.435   17 13  BigTen
62.  Utah                    8.785     7.365     5.497   14 12  MWC
63.  USC                     8.563     6.561     5.241   15 13  PacTen
64.  Villanova               8.459     6.066     4.440   19 10  BigEast
65.  Auburn                  8.428     5.719     2.814   16 13  SEC
66.  WisconsinMilwaukee      8.411     7.200     7.360   20  8  Horizon
67.  Valparaiso              8.363     7.517     6.474   22  6  MidCon
68.  OregonState             8.307     6.223     3.658   16 14  PacTen
69.  Denver                  8.246     6.744     5.432   16 13  SunBelt
70.  ArizonaState            8.077     6.448     5.419   24  8  PacTen
71.  Siena                   7.907     7.100     6.731   23  6  MAAC
72.  Clemson                 7.868     5.797     3.543   17 11  ACC
73.  Tulane                  7.860     5.914     5.085   22 10  CUSA
74.  KentState               7.781     6.457     5.728   20 10  MAC
75.  Houston                 7.747     5.849     4.876   22  7  CUSA
76.  MichiganState           7.738     5.237     3.155   16 12  BigTen
77.  NorthernArizona         7.712     6.713     6.431   17 11  BigSky
78.  St.Marys                7.677     6.236     4.920   16 12  WCC
79.  SouthAlabama            7.517     6.518     6.205   17 11  SunBelt
80.  TennesseeTech           7.365     6.049     6.123   22  8  OVC
81.  MiddleTennessee         7.308     5.667     4.312   16 13  SunBelt
82.  Mississippi             7.282     4.681     1.498   11 17  SEC
83.  WesternKentucky         7.260     5.154     2.195   16 13  SunBelt
84.  Louisville              7.247     4.968     3.237   17 12  CUSA
85.  Pacific                 7.243     6.270     5.723   19 11  BigWest
86.  AlabamaState            7.195     7.013     7.286   22  7  SWAC
87.  Harvard                 7.126     6.266     6.170   22  5  Ivy
88.  Pepperdine              7.022     5.567     3.700   23  7  WCC
89.  Bradley                 7.022     6.322     5.671   16 12  MVC
90.  MontanaState            6.865     5.658     5.324   17 11  BigSky
91.  GeorgiaTech             6.770     5.289     3.891   15 13  ACC
92.  GeorgeWashington        6.514     4.546     3.787   20  8  ATen
93.  Oregon                  6.431     4.668     3.298   17 13  PacTen
94.  DePaul                  6.266     3.582     1.700   15 13  CUSA
95.  Liberty                 6.236     5.758     7.412   23  7  BigSouth
96.  NewHampshire            6.101     5.424     5.141   16 13  AmEast
97.  Hawaii                  6.053     4.942     4.781   23  7  WAC
98.  Rice                    6.014     4.868     4.436   21  8  WAC
99.  Wofford                 5.971     5.298     4.625   14 13  Southern
100. Virginia                5.906     4.140     0.725   17 12  ACC
101. OklahomaState           5.893     3.587     0.389   16 15  BigTwelve
102. Massachusetts           5.814     4.394     3.331   12 18  ATen
103. Charlotte               5.658     3.856     2.957   16 13  CUSA
104. Toledo                  5.584     4.533     3.309   16 11  MAC
105. GeorgiaState            5.515     5.163     5.576   21  9  AtlSun
106. Howard                  5.437     5.454     5.497   19 10  MEAC
107. Manhattan               5.428     4.855     4.099   18 11  MAAC
108. LoyolaMarymount         5.402     4.069     2.065   15 13  WCC
109. MiamiFla.               5.358     2.471     1.413   18 11  BigEast
110. AustinPeay              5.350     4.664     4.108   19 11  OVC
111. Furman                  5.293     4.394     3.033   17 12  Southern
112. Arizona                 5.211     3.396     0.812   14 14  PacTen
113. NorthernIowa            5.193     3.925     2.371   14 16  MVC
114. NorthCarolinaState      5.163     3.216     0.126   14 15  ACC
115. FloridaState            5.115     3.435     1.370   13 15  ACC
116. WesternIllinois         5.059     4.399     4.336   13 12  MidCon
117. WestVirginia            5.046     3.009     1.950   14 14  BigEast
118. NorthwesternState       5.046     5.154     6.587   22  7  Southland
119. Evansville              4.894     3.417     1.055   15 15  MVC
120. Belmont                 4.790     4.720     5.966   18  9  AtlSun
121. WeberState              4.729     3.643     4.872   21  8  BigSky
122. SEMissouriState         4.716     4.097     4.086   13 12  OVC
123. Marquette               4.694     2.104    -0.058   13 14  CUSA
124. RhodeIsland             4.577     3.113     2.740   15 13  ATen
125. BostonUniversity        4.533     3.760     3.185   17 11  AmEast
126. UNCWilmington           4.520     4.058     3.326   16 14  Colonial
127. LongBeachState          4.490     3.648     4.084   16 13  BigWest
128. Bucknell                4.468     3.871     4.507   20  9  Patriot
129. SanFrancisco            4.355     3.085     1.170   18 11  WCC
130. Duquesne                4.299     2.527     2.236   14 15  ATen
131. TexasA&MCorpusChristi   4.221     3.407     3.667   13 12  Independent
132. EasternMichigan         4.216     3.546     2.271   17 11  MAC
133. Maine                   4.197     3.135     2.121   16 12  AmEast
134. Binghamton              4.169     3.708     4.004   19  9  AmEast
135. Richmond                4.110     2.312     0.660   14 16  ATen
136. OhioState               4.108     1.861     0.067   14 15  BigTen
137. Wyoming                 4.099     2.712     1.003   12 15  MWC
138. MiamiOhio               3.906     2.560     2.610   19 11  MAC
139. JacksonState            3.711     3.689     4.590   15 13  SWAC
140. SWMissouriState         3.708     2.221     1.001   16 12  MVC
141. Tulsa                   3.678     2.564     2.234   17 13  WAC
142. WichitaState            3.654     2.312     0.923   14 15  MVC
143. NorthernIllinois        3.554     2.584     1.737   17 12  MAC
144. Nebraska                3.552     1.346    -1.237   14 16  BigTwelve
145. SetonHall               3.452     1.157    -0.177   15 14  BigEast
146. Missouri                3.426     1.101    -1.347   14 14  BigTwelve
147. St.FrancisPa.           3.426     3.274     4.301   19 11  Northeast
148. Portland                3.383     2.299    -0.008   13 15  WCC
149. Maryland                3.367     1.568    -0.257   12 17  ACC
150. Dayton                  3.337     1.337     0.150   11 17  ATen
151. Memphis                 3.140     0.660    -0.403   11 17  CUSA
152. Hartford                3.120     2.519     1.635   16 14  AmEast
153. GeorgiaSouthern         3.120     2.445     1.157   12 14  Southern
154. SanDiego                3.100     1.932     1.776   13 15  WCC
155. Kentucky                2.935    -0.299    -3.471    9 20  SEC
156. WesternMichigan         2.922     1.752     1.735   15 14  MAC
157. Cornell                 2.914     2.720     3.548   14 13  Ivy
158. ArkansasState           2.912     1.153    -0.457   12 16  SunBelt
159. Oakland                 2.775     1.639     0.771   16 13  MidCon
160. Hampton                 2.751     2.471     3.259   17 14  MEAC
161. Rutgers                 2.751    -0.001    -2.780    9 20  BigEast
162. Providence              2.723     0.154    -2.003   13 15  BigEast
163. NorfolkState            2.701     3.135     4.772   19  8  MEAC
164. Mercer                  2.647     2.573     3.719   16 13  AtlSun
165. IndianaState            2.473     1.409     0.680   11 17  MVC
166. Gonzaga                 2.469     1.446     1.166    8 18  WCC
167. Fairfield               2.304     1.444    -0.455   13 16  MAAC
168. Xavier                  2.293     0.575    -1.621   12 19  ATen
169. St.Bonaventure          2.273     0.745    -0.946   13 15  ATen
170. VirginiaCommonwealth    2.228     1.307     0.489   14 14  Colonial
171. MoreheadState           2.223     1.885     1.880   17  8  OVC
172. Grambling               2.217     2.160     2.762   17 10  SWAC
173. SanJoseState            2.199     1.368     2.026   17 11  WAC
174. GeorgeMason             2.126     1.083     0.124   17 14  Colonial
175. JamesMadison            1.991     1.086     0.002   15 12  Colonial
176. Marist                  1.633     0.951     0.395   11 17  MAAC
177. SouthFlorida            1.628    -0.203    -0.520   13 13  CUSA
178. Drexel                  1.448     0.827     1.207   14 15  Colonial
179. AlcornState             1.337     1.529     1.835   13 12  SWAC
180. Monmouth                1.327     1.222     2.718   16 12  Northeast
181. CollegeofCharleston     1.324     0.940     0.289   12 14  Southern
182. SacredHeart             1.279     1.400     2.833   18 11  Northeast
183. Georgetown              1.218    -0.774    -0.511   12 16  BigEast
184. TexasA&M                1.181    -0.848    -1.580   13 16  BigTwelve
185. SaintLouis              1.179    -0.553    -1.247   14 15  CUSA
186. Yale                    1.177     0.829     1.537   14 13  Ivy
187. Detroit                 1.166     0.573     0.727   15 14  Horizon
188. StonyBrook              0.823     0.202    -0.618   16 14  AmEast
189. Canisius                0.792     0.067    -1.358   12 16  MAAC
190. Elon                    0.786     0.799     2.132   13 13  BigSouth
191. Lipscomb                0.760     0.139     1.455    9 12  Independent
192. CalPoly                 0.740    -0.006    -0.095   10 17  BigWest
193. OralRoberts             0.643    -0.401    -1.564   11 16  MidCon
194. Pennsylvania            0.643    -0.021    -0.492   12 15  Ivy
195. Davidson                0.493    -0.266    -1.347    9 18  Southern
196. FloridaAtlantic         0.391    -0.073    -0.457   16 14  AtlSun
197. LongIsland              0.386     0.512     1.852   18 12  Northeast
198. SouthernUtah            0.306    -0.171    -0.336    8 17  MidCon
199. ChicagoState            0.261    -0.396    -0.761   11 17  MidCon
200. Wagner                  0.243     0.358     0.725   14 15  Northeast
201. UAB                     0.243    -1.521    -2.350   12 16  CUSA
202. Princeton               0.230    -0.097     0.237   11 16  Ivy
203. SouthCarolinaState      0.202     0.497     0.682   16 11  MEAC
204. BethuneCookman          0.137     0.486     3.072   12 13  MEAC
205. Dartmouth               0.061    -0.746    -0.993   11 16  Ivy
206. American                0.046    -0.168     0.332   12 15  Patriot
207. TexasArlington          0.037     0.096     0.465   14 15  Southland
208. EastCarolina            0.022    -1.758    -3.262    5 21  CUSA
209. TennesseeMartin        -0.197    -1.041    -1.753    7 20  OVC
210. CentralFlorida         -0.240    -0.670     0.065   17 13  AtlSun
211. Pittsburgh             -0.242    -2.893    -4.315    8 19  BigEast
212. UCRiverside            -0.277    -0.831    -0.066   15 13  BigWest
213. Ohio                   -0.323    -1.091     0.317   13 16  MAC
214. Rider                  -0.370    -0.976    -0.911    7 21  MAAC
215. WakeForest             -0.414    -1.714    -2.919   12 16  ACC
216. IUPUI                  -0.527    -1.389    -1.747    9 17  MidCon
217. Lehigh                 -0.600    -0.757    -0.920   12 16  Patriot
218. BirminghamSouthern     -0.648    -0.388     2.228   14 11  BigSouth
219. William&Mary           -0.709    -1.452    -0.815   11 17  Colonial
220. Colgate                -0.744    -0.735    -1.076   13 17  Patriot
221. WesternCarolina        -0.798    -1.191    -1.640   15 11  Southern
222. TexasSanAntonio        -0.841    -1.004     0.109   16 12  Southland
223. Fordham                -0.870    -2.209    -3.744    6 23  ATen
224. Navy                   -0.885    -0.965     0.873   13 15  Patriot
225. NewMexicoState         -0.907    -2.020    -1.623   13 16  SunBelt
226. Campbell               -0.954    -1.093    -0.223   13 15  AtlSun
227. Columbia               -0.961    -0.789    -0.672   11 14  Ivy
228. LoyolaMd.              -0.989    -1.499    -1.206   12 17  MAAC
229. HighPoint              -1.100    -1.514    -0.737   12 15  BigSouth
230. Quinnipiac             -1.152    -1.119    -0.375   13 14  Northeast
231. LoyolaIll.             -1.156    -1.716    -0.427   15 14  Horizon
232. IdahoState             -1.237    -1.610    -0.924    9 16  BigSky
233. AppalachianState       -1.295    -1.868    -2.741   10 19  Southern
234. MurrayState            -1.345    -2.181    -2.717    7 17  OVC
235. SanDiegoState          -1.547    -2.507    -3.358   10 17  MWC
236. Stetson                -1.551    -1.551    -1.152   13 15  AtlSun
237. TroyState              -1.575    -1.712    -1.792   11 17  AtlSun
238. CoppinState            -1.575    -1.445    -1.308   14 14  MEAC
239. MarylandBaltimoreCo    -1.688    -1.519    -0.637   12 15  Northeast
240. BowlingGreen           -1.706    -2.346    -2.492    8 19  MAC
241. UCIrvine               -1.738    -2.381    -2.057    8 20  BigWest
242. IllinoisChicago        -1.771    -2.246    -1.517   14 15  Horizon
243. Marshall               -1.836    -2.407    -2.059    8 19  MAC
244. SMU                    -1.851    -3.086    -4.231   12 18  WAC
245. PortlandState          -1.875    -2.726    -2.353   11 18  BigSky
246. Mt.St.Marys            -1.996    -1.944    -0.414   12 16  Northeast
247. EastTennesseeState     -2.222    -2.674    -2.774   10 18  Southern
248. YoungstownState        -2.255    -2.648    -1.855   11 16  Horizon
249. SWTexasState           -2.294    -2.320    -0.544   12 16  Southland
250. Niagara                -2.509    -3.241    -3.475    9 19  MAAC
251. IllinoisState          -2.570    -3.864    -5.596    7 20  MVC
252. FresnoState            -2.583    -3.390    -2.439    9 20  WAC
253. CentralMichigan        -2.661    -3.440    -3.894    8 18  MAC
254. JacksonvilleState      -2.687    -2.917    -3.108    8 19  AtlSun
255. Idaho                  -2.715    -3.317    -3.156   11 17  BigWest
256. Northwestern           -2.761    -5.184    -8.349    4 24  BigTen
257. Hofstra                -2.811    -3.434    -3.436    9 19  Colonial
258. SouthernMississippi    -2.898    -4.667    -5.384   10 17  CUSA
259. TexasSouthern          -2.976    -2.895    -2.118    9 17  SWAC
260. FairleighDickinson     -2.991    -2.654    -0.852   14 14  Northeast
261. EasternWashington      -3.095    -3.742    -3.859   10 17  BigSky
262. UMKC                   -3.223    -3.833    -3.575    7 21  MidCon
263. Buffalo                -3.247    -4.111    -4.402    9 19  MAC
264. CharlestonSouthern     -3.282    -3.486    -3.236    9 16  BigSouth
265. SELouisiana            -3.358    -3.449    -2.005   10 18  Southland
266. ClevelandState         -3.453    -3.979    -3.390   11 15  Horizon
267. BoiseState             -3.484    -4.189    -4.571   10 20  WAC
268. Army                   -3.597    -3.831    -2.774   10 18  Patriot
269. California             -3.621    -4.923    -5.166    7 21  PacTen
270. FloridaA&M             -3.705    -3.275    -0.935   11 18  MEAC
271. ArkansasLittleRock     -3.916    -5.023    -5.596    8 19  SunBelt
272. NewOrleans             -3.983    -4.758    -5.080   11 18  SunBelt
273. UCLA                   -4.074    -5.640    -7.585    9 20  PacTen
274. LaSalle                -4.192    -5.622    -6.304    6 22  ATen
275. Kansas                 -4.200    -6.096    -9.101    4 25  BigTwelve
276. Northeastern           -4.213    -4.945    -6.777    6 22  AmEast
277. LouisianaLafayette     -4.311    -5.362    -5.388    7 21  SunBelt
278. AlabamaA&M             -4.380    -4.150    -2.806    9 16  SWAC
279. Nevada                 -4.437    -5.423    -6.248    9 19  WAC
280. Iona                   -4.815    -5.357    -5.562    8 21  MAAC
281. MarylandEasternShore   -5.058    -4.654    -2.591   12 17  MEAC
282. LouisianaMonroe        -5.075    -5.045    -4.035    9 18  Southland
283. Radford                -5.518    -5.622    -3.712   11 15  BigSouth
284. Brown                  -5.544    -6.222    -6.217    5 21  Ivy
285. Albany                 -5.709    -5.974    -6.443    4 23  AmEast
286. CoastalCarolina        -5.879    -5.909    -4.776    9 18  BigSouth
287. NichollsState          -5.935    -5.748    -4.472   10 16  Southland
288. Winthrop               -5.961    -5.722    -4.435    8 18  BigSouth
289. AirForce               -7.477    -8.549    -9.370    4 24  MWC
290. DelawareState          -7.681    -7.303    -6.595    7 19  MEAC
291. McNeeseState           -7.772    -7.611    -6.586    6 21  Southland
292. EasternIllinois        -7.872    -8.540    -9.057    6 21  OVC
293. SouthernIllinois       -8.045    -8.792    -9.135    6 21  MVC
294. CalStateNorthridge     -8.063    -9.144    -9.543    2 24  BigWest
295. TennesseeState         -8.306    -8.879   -10.169    3 22  OVC
296. Lamar                  -9.074    -8.944    -7.138    8 19  Southland
297. Butler                 -9.153    -9.839   -10.369    3 26  Horizon
298. Lafayette              -9.387    -9.370   -10.091    3 25  Patriot
299. WrightState            -9.648    -9.952    -9.708    6 21  Horizon
300. Jacksonville          -10.212   -10.212    -9.943    3 23  AtlSun
301. Centenary             -10.247    -9.934    -9.769    3 19  Independent
302. St.FrancisN.Y.        -10.377   -10.099    -8.627    5 22  Northeast
303. St.Johns              -10.429   -12.210   -12.739    3 24  BigEast
304. RobertMorris          -10.872   -10.507    -9.908    3 22  Northeast
305. WashingtonState       -10.950   -12.305   -14.485    2 27  PacTen
306. TexasElPaso           -11.107   -11.671   -12.019    3 25  WAC
307. MississippiValley     -11.176   -10.924    -8.901    2 22  SWAC
308. Samford               -11.480   -11.498   -11.402    3 24  AtlSun
309. ArkansasPineBluff     -11.628   -11.619   -10.507    6 19  SWAC
310. SamHoustonState       -11.680   -11.645   -11.263    3 24  Southland
311. CalStateFullerton     -11.845   -12.470   -12.045    4 24  BigWest
312. Akron                 -12.270   -12.774   -12.983    1 27  MAC
313. TexasPanAmerican      -12.305   -12.939   -11.506    2 20  Independent
314. PrairieViewA&M        -12.818   -12.757   -13.035    4 21  SWAC
315. CentralConnecticut    -12.904   -12.548   -12.253    4 23  Northeast
316. NorthCarolinaA&T      -12.965   -12.453   -11.584    3 22  MEAC
317. MorganState           -14.641   -14.416   -13.981    1 27  MEAC
318. Towson                -14.693   -15.189   -15.258    2 26  Colonial
319. UNCAsheville          -15.927   -15.849   -15.666    1 26  BigSouth
320. MorrisBrown           -18.254   -17.907   -16.865    1 21  Independent
321. CalStateSacramento    -21.085   -21.607   -22.736    0 27  BigSky

Sat Mar 09 22:11:34 CST 2002

Calculations by Curtis Schmelling, made possible by MacPerl and Java!

(C) Copyright 1997-2002, Curtis Schmelling

You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All Rights Reserved